The Old Booksmith

Bibliography of 19th Century U.S. Army Frontier Posts & Forts

Note: Limited to the continental United States. Does not include temporary fortifications in Civil War theaters. Does not include private Indian-trading and other mercantile forts (like Bent’s Fort).


Billings, John S. A Report on Barracks and Hospitals, with Descriptions of Military Posts. (No. 4) Washington, DC: U.S. Surgeon General’s Office, 1875.

Brown, William, III. The Army Called It Home: Military Interiors of the 19th Century. Gettysburg, PA: Thomas Publications, 1992.

Frazer, Robert W. Forts of the West: Military Forts and Presidios and Posts Commonly Called Forts West of the Mississippi River to 1898. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1965.

Grant, Bruce. American Forts Yesterday and Today. NY: Dutton, 1965.

Hammond, John M. Quaint and Historic Forts of North America. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1915.

Hart, Herbert M. Old Forts of the Northwest. Seattle: Superior Publishing Co, 1963.

Hart, Herbert M. Old Forts of the Southwest. Seattle: Superiod Publishing Co, 1964.

Ledyard, Edgar M. "American Posts." Utah Historical Quarterly 1 (April 1928): 56-64; 1 (July 1928): 86-96; 1 (October 1928): 114-27; 2 (January 1929): 25-30; 2 (April 1929): 55-64; 2 (July 1929): 90-96; 2 (October 1929): 127-28; 3 (January 1930): 27-32; 3 (April 1930): 59-64; 3 (July 1930): 90-96; 5 (April 1932): 65-80; 5 (July 1932): 113-28; 5 (October 1932): 161-76; 6 (January 1933): 29-48; 6 (April 1932): 64-80.
      [Author attempted to include all posts, private as well as military; there are numerous omissions]

Mansfield, Joseph K. F. Mansfield on the Condition of Western Forts, 1853-54. (ed., Robert W. Frazer) Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963.

Mattison, Ray H. "The Army Post on the Northern Plains, 1865-1885." Nebraska History Magazine 35 (March 1954): 17-43.

Prucha, Francis Paul. Military Posts of the United Stsates, 1789-1895. Madison, WI: State Historical Society of wisconsin, 1964. (2d printing, 1966, includes corrections)

Peterson, Harold L. Forts in America. NY: Scribner, 1964.

Rhyne, David W. "Army Posts in American Culture: a Historical Geography of Army Posts in the United States." M.A. thesis, Pennsylvania State University, 1979.

Robinson, Willard B. American Forts: Architectural Form and Function. Urbana: University of Illinois Press (for Amon Carter Museum of Western Art), 1977.

Rudd, Augustin G. Histories of Army Posts. Reprinted from "The Recruiting news." Governor's Island, NY: U.S. Army Recruiting Publicity Bureau, 1924.

Ruth, Kent. Great Day in the West: Forts, Posts, and Rendezvous Beyond the Mississippi. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963.

Sheridan, Philip H. Outline Descriptions of the Posts in the Military Division of the Missouri, Commanded by Lieutenant General P. H. Sheridan. Chicago: npub, 1872.

Tyler, Robert Ogden. Revised Outlines and Descriptions of Posts and Stations of Troops in the Military Division of the Pacific. San Francisco: npub, 1872.

Welty, Raymond L. "Supplying the Frontier Military Posts." Kansas Historical Quarterly 7 (May 1938): 154-69.

Wesley, Edgar Bruce. Guarding the Frontier, a Study of Frontier Defense from 1815 to 1825. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1935.


Brandes, Ray. "A Guide to the History of the U.S. Army Installations in Arizona, 1849-1886." Arizona and the West 1 (Spring 1959): 42-65.

Brandes, Ray. Frontier Military Posts of Arizona. Tucson: Dale Stuart King, 1960.

Frink, Maurice. Fort Defiance & the Navajos. Boulder, CO: Pruett Press, 1968.

Lockwood, Frank C. "Early Military Posts in Arizona." Arizona Historical Review 2 (January 1930): 91-97.

McChristian, Douglas C. Fort Bowie, Arizona: combat post of the Southwest, 1858-1894. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2005.

Taylor, Fenton. "So They Built Fort Bowie." Desert Magazine 14 (August 1951): 4-7.

Utley, Robert M. A Clash of Cultures: Fort Bowie and the Chiricahua Apaches. Washington, DC: Office of Publications, National Park Service, 1977.

Wharfield, H. B. With Scouts and Cavalry at Fort Apache. (ed., John Alexander Carroll) Tucson: Arizona Pioneers' Historical Society, 1965.


Bearss, Edwin C. & Arrell M. Gibson. Fort Smith; Little Gibraltar on the Arkansas. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1969.

Caldwell, Norman W. "Tonty and the Beginning of the Arkansas Post." Arkansas Historical Quarterly 3 (Autumn 1949): 189-205.

Fletcher, Mary P. "The Post of Arkansas." Arkansas Historical Quarterly 7 (Summer 1948): 145-49.

Mattison, Ray H. "Arkansas Post — the Human Aspect." Arkansas Historical Quarterly 16 (Summer 1957): 117-38.


Belden, L. Burr. "Forgotten Army Forts of the Mojave." Westerners Brand Book (Los Angeles Corral) 11 (1964): 93-102.

Cocks, Bert H. "Fort Moore." Historical Society of Southern California Quarterly 28 (September 1946): 89-94.

Cullimore, Clarence. Old Adobes of Forgotten Fort Tejon. Bakersfield, CA: Kern County Historical Society, 1941.

Giffen, Helen F. "Camp Independence — an Owens Valley Outpost." Historical Society of Southern California Quarterly 24 (December 1942): 128-42.

Giffen, Helen F. "Fort Miller and Millerton." Historical Society of Southern California Quarterly 21 (March 1939): 5-16.

Guinn, J. M. "Fort Moore." Publications of the Historical Society of Southern California 6 (1903/5): 7-9.

Reminiscences of Early Days; a True Account of Fort Bragg, Kibesillah & Vicinity. Ukiah, CA: Mendocino County Historical Society, 1970.

Rogers, Fred B. "Early Military Posts of Del Norte County." California Historical Society Quarterly 26 (March 1947): 1-11.

Rogers, Fred B. "Early Military Posts of Mendocino County." California Historical Society Quarterly 28 (September 1948): 215-28.

Whiting, J. S. & Richard J. Whiting. Forts of the state of California. Seattle: npub, 1960.

Woodward, Arthur. "Outpost on the Colorado." Desert Magazine 3 (November 1939): 1-8. [Fort Mojave]


Ayres, Mary C. "History of Fort Lewis, Colorado." Colorado Magazine 8 (May 1931): 81-92.

Gray, John S. Cavalry & Coaches: the Story of Camp and Fort Collins. Fort Collins, CO: Fort Collins Corral of Westerners, 1978.

Gressley, Gene M. (ed). "Report on Fort Garland Made by Christopher (Kit) Carson to Major Roger James, June 10, 1866." Colorado Magazine 32 (July 1955): 215-24.

Nankivell, John H. "Fort Garland, Colorado." Colorado Magazine 16 (January 1939): 13-28.

Nankivell, John H. "Fort Crawford, Colorado, 1880-1890." Colorado Magazine 11 (March 1934): 54-64.

Parker, C. F. (Mrs.). "Old Julesburg and Fort Sedgewick." Colorado Magazine 7 (July 1930): 139-46.

Pfanner, Charles E. "The Genesis of Fort Logan." Colorado Magazine 19 (March 1942): 43-50.

Pfanner, Charles E. "Highlights in the History of Fort Logan." Colorado Magazine 19 (May 1942): 81-91.

Ross, R. W. "When Fort Morgan Was Really a Fort." Colorado Magazine 22 (September 1945): 227-28.

Spring, Agnes Wright. "The Founding of Fort Collins, United States Military Post." Colorado Magazine 10 (March 1933): 47-55.


Bird, Annie Laurie. Old Fort Boise. Parma, ID: Old Fort Boise Historical Society, 1971.


Carter, William H. "Fort Sanford, Iowa." Annals of Iowa (3d series) 4 (1899-1901): 284-93.

Van der Zee, Jacob. "Forts in the Iowa Country." Iowa Journal of History and Politics 12 (April 1914): 163-204.

Van der Zee, Jacob (ed). "Old Fort Madison: Some Source Materials." Iowa Journal of History and Politics 11 (October 1913): 517-45.


Barry, Louise. "The Fort Leavenworth-Fort Gibson Military Road and the Founding of Fort Scott." Kansas Historical Quarterly 11 (May 1942): 115-29.

Hunt, Elvid. History of Fort Leavenworth 1827-1927. Fort Leavenworth, KS: General Service Schools Press, 1926.

Montgomery, Frank C. (Mrs.). "Fort Wallace and Its Relation to the Frontier." Collections to the Kansas State Historical Society 17 (1928): 189-283.

Oliva, Leo E. Fort Dodge: Sentry of the Western Plains. Topeka: Kansas State Historical Society, 1998.

Pride, W. F. The History of Fort Riley. Fort Riley, KS: Cavalry School, Book Dept., 1926.

Richards, Ralph. Headquarters House and the Forts of Fort Scott. Ft. Scott, KS: npub, 1954.

Strate, David K. Sentinel to the Cimarron: the Frontier Experience of Fort Dodge, Kansas. Dodge City, KS: Cultural Heritage and Arts Center, 1970.

Unrau, William E. "The Story of Fort Larned." Kansas Historical Quarterly 23 (Autumn 1957): 257-80.

Willman, Lillian E. "The History of Fort Kearny." Publications of the Nebraska State Historical Society 21 (1930): 211-326.


"Early Days at Fort Snelling." Collections of the Minnesota State Historical Society 1 (1902): 345-59.

Forsythe, Thomas. "Fort Snelling: Colonel Leavenworth’s Expedition to Establish It, in 1819." Collections of the Minnesota State Historical Society 3 (1880): 139-67.

Fridley, Russell W. "Fort Snelling from Military Post to Historic Site." Minnesota History 35 (December 1956): 178-92.

Hanson, Marcus L. Old Fort Snelling, 1819-1858. Iowa City: State Historical Society of Iowa, 1918.

Bell, William S. Old Fort Benton, What It Was, and How It Came To Be. Helena, MT: npub, 1909.

Lepley, John G. Birthplace of Montana: a History of Fort Benton. Missoula, MT: Pictorial Histories Publ. Co, 1999.

Neill, Edward D. "Occurences in and around Fort Snelling from 1819-1840." Collections of the Minnesota State Historical Society 2 (1889): 102-42.

Prucha, Francis Paul. "Fort Ripley: the Post and the Military Reservation." Minnesota History 28 (September 1947): 205-24.

Tanner, George C. "History of Fort Ripley, 1849-1859." Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society 10, part 1 (1905): 179-202.


Anderson, James. "Fort Osage." Bulletin of the Missouri Historical Society 4 (April 1948): 174-76.

Gregg, Kate L. "Building of the First American Fort West of the Mississippi." Missouri Historical Review 30 (July 1936): 345-64. [Fort Bellefontaine]

Gregg, Kate L. "The History of Fort Osage." Missouri Historical Review 34 (July 1940): 439-88.


Blades, Thomas E. & John W. Wilke. "Fort Missoula." Military Affairs 13 (Spring 1949): 29-36.

Polka, George E. Fort Custer, 1877-1898: Then & Now. Billings, MT: The Author, 1994.

Upton, Richard (comp). Fort Custer on the Big Horn, 1877-1898; Its History and Personalities as Told and Pictured by Its Contemporaries. Glendale, CA: A. H. Clark Co., 1973.


Grange, Robert T., Jr. "Fort Robinson: outpost on the plains." Nebraska History Magazine 39 (1958): 191-241.

Holmes, Louis A. Fort McPherson, Nebraska, Fort Cottonwood, N. T., Guardian of the Tracks and Trails. [Centennial ed.]. Lincoln: Johnsen Publishing Co, 1963.

Johnson, Sally A. "Cantonment Missouri, 1819-1820." Nebraska History Magazine 37 (June 1956): 121-33. [predecessor of Fort Atkinson]

Johnson, Sally A. "Fort Atkinson at Council Bluffs." Nebraska History Magazine 38 (September 1957): 229-36.

Mantor, Lyle E. "Fort Kearny and the Westward Movement." Nebraska History 29 (September 1948): 175-207.

Mattes, Merrill J. "Fort Mitchell, Scotts Bluff, Nebraska Territory." Nebraska History Magazine 33 (March 1952): 1-34.

Mattes, Merrill J. "A History of Old Fort Mitchell." Nebraska History Magazine 24 (April-June 1943): 71-82.

Mullin, Cora Phoebe. "The Founding of Fort Hartsuff. Nebraska Historical Magazine 12 (April-June 1931): 129-40.

Ney, Virgil. Fort on the Prairie: Fort Atkinson, on the Council Bluff, 1819-1827. Washington, DC: Command Publications, 1978.

Sweet, J. H. "Old Fort Kearny." Nebraska Historical Magazine 27 (October-December 1946): 233-43.

Watkins, Albert. "History of Fort Kearny." Collections of the Nebraska State Historical Society 16 (1911): 227-67.


Bouldin, Edna. "Frontier Garrison." New Mexico 15 (October 1937): 22-23. [Fort Selden]

Cox, Jess. "Fort Bayard — Frontier Outpost." New Mexico Magazine 42 (April 1964): 6-8.

Crimmins, Martin Lalor. "Fort Fillmore." New Mexico Historical Review 6 (October 1931): 327-33.

Emmett, Chris. Fort Union and the Winning of the Southwest. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1965.

Foster, James Monroe, Jr. "Fort Bascom, New Mexico." New Mexico Historical Review 35 (January 1960): 30-62.

Grinstead, Marion C. Life and Death of a Frontier Fort — Fort Craig, New Mexico, 1854-1885. Socorro, NM: Socorro County Historical Society, 1973.

Parker, William Thornton. Annals of Old Fort Cummings, New Mexico, 1867-8. Northampton, MA: Gazette Printing Co, 1925.

Prince, L. Bradford. Old Fort Marcy, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Santa Fe: npub, 1912.

Savage, Laird. "Fort Wingate." New Mexico Magazine 38 (August 1960): 33-39.

Stanley, F. [Stanley Francis Louis Crocchiola]. Fort Bascom, Comanche-Kiowa Barrier. Pampa(?), TX: npub, 1961.

Stanley, F. [Stanley Francis Louis Crocchiola]. The Fort Conrad New Mexico story. Dumas, TX: npub, 1961.

Stanley, F. [Stanley Francis Louis Crocchiola]. Fort Craig. Pampa(?) TX: npub, 1963.

Stanley, F. [Stanley Francis Louis Crocchiola]. Fort Union (New Mexico). Canadian(?), TX: npub, 1953.

Staski, Edward. Research on the American West: Archaeology at Forts Cummings and Fillmore. Santa Fe, NM: U. S. Bureau of Land Management, New Mexico State Office, 1995.

Thomlinson, M. H. "Forgotten Fort." New Mexico 23 (November 1945): 14+. [Fort Webster]

Utley, Robert W. "Fort Union and the Santa Fe Trail." New Mexico Historical Review 36 (January 1961): 36-48.


Dunn, Adrian R. A History of Old Fort Berthold. Bismarck, ND: npub, 1964.

"Fort Abercrombie, 1857-1877." Collections of the State Historical Society of North Dakota 2, part 2 (1908).

Kimball, James P. "Fort Buford." North Dakota Historical Quarterly 4 (January 1930): 75-77.

Mattison, Ray H. "Fort Rice — North Dakota’s First Missouri River Military Post." North Dakota History 20 (April 1953): 87-108.

Mattison, Ray H. "Old Fort Stevenson — a Typical Missouri River Military Post." North Dakota History 38 (April 1951): 53-91.

Noyer, Charles de. "The History of Fort Totten." Collections of the State Historical Society of North Dakota 3 (1910): 178-236.

Remele, Larry (ed). Fort Buford and the Military Frontier on the Northern Plains, 1850-1900. Bismarck, ND: State Historical Society of North Dakota, 1987.

Slaughter, Linda W. "Fort Abercrombie." Collections of the State Historical Society of North Dakota 1 (1906): 412-23.

Slaughter, Linda W. "Fort Randall." Collections of the State Historical Society of North Dakota 1 (1906): 423-29.

Walker, Rev. James F. "Old Fort Berthold As I Knew It." North Dakota History 20 (January 1953).

Welty, Raymond L. "The Army Fort of the Frontier (1860-1870)." North Dakota Historical Quarterly 2 (April 1928): 155-67.


Burnet, William E. The Removal of the Texas Indians and the Founding of Fort Cobb: Lieutenant William E. Burnet Letters. Oklahoma City(?): npub, 1961.

Foreman, Grant. Fort Gibson, a Brief History. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936.

Griswold, Gillett. "Old Fort Sill: the First Seven Years." Chronicles of Oklahoma 36 (Spring 1958): 2-14.

Morrison, William Brown. "Fort Arbuckle." Chronicles of Oklahoma 6 (March 1928): 26-34.

Morrison, William Brown. Military Posts and Camps in Oklahoma. Oklahoma City: Harlow Publishing Co, 1936.

Morrison, William Brown. "A Visit to Old Fort Washita." Chronicles of Oklahoma 7 (June 1929): 175-79.

Muncrief, Dennis. A History of Ft. Arbuckle: It's [sic] People and Times. Bloomington, IN: The Author, 2004.

Nye, Wilbur S. Carbine and Lance: the Story of Old Fort Sill. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1957.

Shirk, George H. "The Site of Old Camp Arbuckle." Chronicles of Oklahoma 27 (Autumn 1949): 313-15.

Thoburn, Joseph B. "The Story of Cantonment." Chronicles of Oklahoma 3 (April 1924): 68-73.

Wright, Muriel H. "A History of Fort Cobb." Chronicles of Oklahoma 34 (Spring 1956): 53-71.


Knuth, Priscilla. "Picturesque" Frontier: the Army's Fort Dalles. 2d ed. Portland, OR: Oregon Historical Society Press, 1987.


"Dakota Military Posts." South Dakota Historical Collections 8 (1916): 77-99.

Hoekman, Steven. "The History of Fort Sully." South Dakota Historical Collections 26 (1952): 222-77.

Hummell, Edward A. "The Story of Fort Sisseton." South Dakota Historical Review 2 (April 1937): 126-44.

Warren, Gouverneur K. "Survey of Military Reserve of Fort Pierre." South Dakota Historical Review 1 (July 1936): 252-55.


Ashcraft, Allan C. "Fort Brown, Texas, in 1861." Texas Military History 3 (Winter 1963): 243-47.

Barrett, Arrie. "Western Frontier Forts of Texas, 1845-1861." West Texas Historical Association Year Book 7 (1931): 115-39.

Boggs, Herschel. "A History of Fort Concho." M.A. thesis, University of Texas, 1940.

Braley, Earl Burk. "Fort Belknap of the Texas Frontier." West Texas Historical Association Year Book 30 (1954): 83-114.

Chapman, John. "Old Fort Richardson." Southwest Review 38 (Winter 1953): 62-69.

Cox, Mike. "Old Fort Croghan." Texas Military History 5 (Spring 1965): 15-19.

Crimmins, Martin L. "Camp Cooper and Fort Griffin, Texas." West Texas Historical Association Year Book 17 (1941): 32-43.

Crimmins, Martin L. "The First Line of Army Posts Established in West Texas in 1849." West Texas Historical Association Year Book 19 (1943): 121-27.

Crimmins, Martin L. "Fort Elliott, Texas." West Texas Historical Association Year Book 23 (1947): 3-12.

Crimmins, Martin L. "Fort McKavett, Texas." Southwestern Historical Quarterly 38 (July 1934): 28-39.

Crook, Cornelia & Garland Crook. "Fort Lincoln, Texas." Texas Military History 4 (Fall 1964): 145-61.

Field, William T. "Fort Duncan and Old Eagle Pass." Texas Military History 6 (Summer 1967): 160-71.

Frantz, Joe B. "The Significance of Frontier Forts to Texas." Southwestern Historical Quarterly 74 (October 1970): 204-5.

Graham, Roy Eugene. "Federal Fort Architecture in Texas during the Nineteenth Century." Southwestern Historical Quarterly 74 (October 1970): 165-88.

Grant, Ben O. "Life in Old Fort Griffin." West Texas Historical Association Year Book 10 (1934): 32-41.

Green, Bill. The Dancing Was Lively: Fort Concho, Texas: a Social History, 1867-1882. San Angelo, TX: Fort Concho Sketches Pub. Co., 1974.

Haley, J. Evetts. Fort Concho and the Texas Frontier. San Angelo, TX: San Angelo Standard-Times, 1952.

Handy, Mary Olivia. History of Fort Sam Houston. San Antonio: Naylor, 1951.

Hatcher, John H. "Fort Phantom Hill." Texas Military History 3 (Fall 1963): 154-64.

Havens, Thomas R. Camp Colorado: a Decade of Frontier Defense. Brownwood, TX: Brown Press, 1964.

Knight, Oliver. Fort Worth, Outpost on the Trinity. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1953.

Ledbetter, Barbara A. Neal. Fort Belknap Frontier Saga: Indians, Negroes and Anglo-Americans on the Texas Frontier. Burnet, TX: Eakin Press, 1982.

Metz, Leon Claire. Desert Army: Fort Bliss on the Texas Border. Rev. ed. El Paso, TX: Mangan Books, 1988.

Metz, Leon C. Fort Bliss, an Illustrated History. El Paso, TX: Mangan Books, 1981.

Miles, Susan. Fort Concho in 1877. San Angelo, TX: Bradley Co., 1972.

Myres, Sandra L. "Fort Graham: Listening Post on the Texas Frontier." West Texas Historical Association Year Book 59 (1983): 33-51.

Oswald, James M. "History of Fort Elliott." Panhandle-Plains Historical Review 32 (1959): 1-59.

Perkins, Clay. The Fort in Fort Worth. Keller, TX: Cross-Timbers Heritage Publishing Co., 2001.

Pirtle, Caleb & Michael F. Cusack. The Lonely Sentinel: Fort Clark, on Texas's Western Frontier. Austin, TX: Eakin Press, 1985.

Richardson, Rupert N. "The Saga of Camp Cooper." West Texas Historical Association Year Book 56 (1980): 14-34.

Rister, Carl Coke. "The Border Post of Phantom Hill." West Texas Historical Association Year Book 14 (1938): 3-13.

Rister, Carl Coke. Fort Griffin on the Texas Frontier. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1956.

Scobee, Barry. Fort Davis, 1583-1960. Fort Davis, TX: npub, 1963.

Scobee, Barry. The Story of Fort Davis, Jeff Davis County and the Davis Mountains. Fort Davis, TX: M. Hunter, Jr., 1936.

Simpson, Harold B. (ed). Frontier Forts of Texas. Waco, TX: Texian Press, 1966.

Thomlinson, M. H. The garrison of Fort Bliss, 1849-1916. El Paso, TX: Hertzog & Resler, 1945.

Thompson, Richard A. Fort Duncan, Texas: Rock of the Rio Grande Line of Defense. Austin, TX: Nortex Press, 2004.

Thompson, Theronne. "Fort Buffalo Springs, Texas Border Post." West Texas Historical Association Year Book 36 (1960): 156-75.

Toulouse. Joseph H. & James R. Toulouse. Pioneer Posts of Texas; Compiled from the Records of the War Department. San Antonio: Naylor, 1936.

Utley Robert N. Fort Davis National Historic Site, Texas. (National Park Service Historical Handbook series, no. 38) Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, 1965.

Whisenhunt, Donald W. Fort Richardson: Outpost on the Texas Frontier. (Southwestern Studies, no. 20) El Paso: Texan Western Press, 1968.

Williams, Clayton. Texas' Last Frontier: Fort Stockton and the Trans-Pecos, 1861-1895. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1982.

Wooster, Robert. Fort Davis: Outpost on the Texas Frontier. Austin: Texas State Historical Association, 1994.

Wooster, Robert. Frontier Crossroads: Fort Davis and the West. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2006.

Wooster, Robert. History of Fort Davis, Texas. Santa Fe, NM: Division of History, Southwest Cultural Resources Center, Southwest Region, National Park Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, 1990


Hoop, O. W. "Recollections of Fort Douglas at the turn of the century." Utah Historical Quarterly 21 (1953): ______.


Cowell, Theodore Ray. "History of Fort Townsend." Washington Historical Quarterly 16 (October 1925): 284-89.

Guie, H. Dean. Bugles in the valley: Garnett’s Fort Simcoe. Rev. ed. Portland: Oregon Historical Society, 1977.


Mahan, Bruce E. Old Fort Crawford and the Frontier. Iowa City: State Historical Society of Iowa, 1926.

Wesley, Edgar B. "Life at Fort Atkinson." Nebraska History 30 (December 1949): 348-58.

Wesley, Edgar B. "Life in a Frontier Post: Fort Atkinson, 1823-1826." Journal of the American Military Institute 3 (Winter 1939): 203-9.


Brown, Dee Alexander. Fort Phil Kearny, an American Saga. NY: Putnam, 1962.

Chappell, Gordon S. "The Fortifications of Old Fort Laramie." Annals of Wyoming 34 (October 1962): 145-62.

Ellison, Robert Spurrier. Fort Bridger — a Brief History. Cheyenne: Wyoming State Archives, Museums, & Historical Dept., 1981.

Gowans, Fred R. Fort Bridger, Island in the Wilderness. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Press, 1975.

Hafen, Leroy R. Fort Laramie and the Pageant of the West. Glendale, CA: Arthur H. Clark, 1938.

Hoagland, Alison K. Army Architecture in the West: Forts Laramie, Bridger, and D.A. Russell, 1849-1912. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2004.

Janin, Hunt. Fort Bridger, Wyoming: Trading Post for Indians, Mountain Men, and Westward Migrants. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2001.

Kendall, Jane R. "History of Fort Francis E. Warren." Annals of Wyoming 18 (January 1946): 3-66. [renamed from Fort Russell]